如何才能减缓衰老?长寿的秘密? [复制链接]查看:1250回复:0

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 英文原文:18 Secrets for a Longer Life

  揭开长寿的秘密:

  1. 保护 DNA,我们并非无能为力(Protect Your DNA)

DNA 示意图。图片来源:webmd.com。

  染色体的末端——端粒——会随着年龄的增长而缩短,让我们更容易生病。也许你会认为我们对此无能为力就,但最新研究表明,生活习惯的改变可以激发一种增加端粒长度的酶,而且其他研究也发现合理饮食和锻炼能保护端粒。看来健康的生活习惯能从细胞级别减缓衰老。
As we age, the ends of our chromosomes -- called telomeres -- become shorter. This makes people more vulnerable to disease. You might think there's nothing you can do, but new research suggests otherwise. In a pilot study,  lifestyle changes boosted an enzyme that increases telomere length. Other studies also find diet and exercise can protect telomeres. So healthy habits may slow aging at the cellular level.
  2. 认真负责的人,活得更久(Be Conscientious)

图片来源:webmd.com

  一项历时 80 年的研究发现,“认真”的个性是长寿最好的保证之一。研究人员测量了诸如对细节的关注度、毅力等指标,发现认真负责的人不仅对保健更上心,也把人际关系和事业处理得更好。
An 80-year study found one of the best predictors of a long life is a conscientious personality. Researchers measured attributes like attention to detail and persistence. They found that conscientious people do more things to protect their health and make choices that lead to stronger relationships and better careers.
  多交朋友,朋友多了更长寿(Make Friends)

图片来源:webmd.com

  科学又贡献了一个感激朋友的理由:他们可能让你活得更久。澳大利亚的研究人员发现,与比较孤僻的人相比,年老的“交际花”在 10 年中去世的概率更低。针对 148 项研究结果的整合分析也支持充足的社交与长寿相关。
Science has given you one more reason to be grateful for your friends – they might help you live longer. Australian researchers found elderly social butterflies were less likely to die over a 10-year period compared to people with the fewest friends. Another analysis of results from 148 studies supports the link between plentiful social connections and longevity.
  当然,交友需慎重(Choose Your Friends Wisely)

图片来源:webmd.com

  朋友的习惯对你有潜移默化的影响,所以找些生活习惯健康的人作伴。研究表明肥胖具有“社会传染性”,如果你有个肥胖的朋友,你自己肥胖的可能性会增加 57%。吸烟也一样,好在戒烟也有传染性。
Your friends’ habits rub off on you, so look for companions with healthy lifestyles. Studies indicate obesity is socially “contagious" –  your chance of becoming obese increases by 57% if you have a friend who becomes obese. Smoking is another habit that spreads through social ties, but the good news is that quitting is also contagious.
  戒烟,不需解释(Quit Smoking)

图片来源:webmd.com

  众所周知戒烟能延长人的寿命,但延长的程度可能会吓你一跳。根据英国一项历时 50 年的研究,30岁戒烟能足足延长 10 年寿命;40、50、60岁戒烟则分别延长 9 年、6年、3年。
While it's no secret that giving up cigarettes can lengthen your days -- the amount of extra time may surprise you. According to a 50-year British study, quitting at age 30 could increase your lifespan by an entire decade. Kicking the habit at age 40, 50, or 60 boosts life expectancy by 9, 6, or 3 years, respectively.  
  午睡,必须的(Embrace the Siesta)

图片来源:webmd.com

  世界很多地方的人都有午睡习惯,现在科学也证明午睡有助于长寿。最近一项 24,000 人参加的研究指出,与很少午睡的人相比,习惯午睡的人死于心脏疾病的风险要低 37%。研究者认为午睡可以降低压力激素水平,从而保护心脏。
A siesta is standard in many parts of the world, and now there's scientific evidence that napping may help you live longer. A recent study with 24,000 participants suggests that regular nappers are 37% less likely to die from heart disease than occasional nappers. Researchers think naps might help your heart by keeping stress hormones down.
  地中海的健康饮食,值得参考(Follow a Mediterranean Diet)

图片来源:webmd.com

  地中海食谱含有较多的水果、蔬菜、全谷类、橄榄油以及鱼肉,它的益处已经被超过 50 万人参与的 50 项研究分别证实。这些食物能够明显减少肥胖、糖尿病、高血压及心脏病等代谢性疾病的风险。
The Mediterranean diet is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, olive oil, and fish. An analysis of 50 studies involving more than half a million people shows the impressive benefits of this diet. The findings show it significantly lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome – a combination of obesity, elevated blood sugar, increased blood pressure, and other factors that raise your risk of heart disease and diabetes.

  8. 吃,像冲绳人那样吃(Eat Like an Okinawan)

图片来源:webmd.com

  日本冲绳岛上的居民曾经享有世界上最长的人均寿命,研究者认为这与他们高蔬菜、低热量的传统饮食有关。一些冲绳人习惯只吃掉碗里八成的食物。随着年轻一代逐渐放弃传统,冲绳岛的人均寿命有所下降。
The people of Okinawa, Japan once had the longest life expectancy in the world. Researchers attribute this to the region's traditional diet, which is high in green and yellow vegetables and low in calories. Some Okinawans make a habit of eating only 80% of the food on their plate. As younger generations have veered from these traditions, life expectancy in Okinawa has fallen.
  婚姻或许是爱情的坟墓,但它会让你离坟墓远一点

图片:webmd.com

  几项研究指出,已婚者往往比相同条件的单身者更加长寿。很多研究者认为这是由于婚姻带来的社交及经济支持。存续中的婚姻帮助最大,不过离婚或者丧偶的人死亡率也低于未结过婚的人。
Several studies show that married people tend to outlive their single counterparts. Many researchers attribute the difference to the social and economic support marriage provides. While a current marriage offers the greatest benefit, people who are divorced or widowed have lower mortality rates than those who have never been married.
  10. 减肥,没商量的(Lose Weight)

  图片来源:webmd.com

  如果你体重超重,减肥吧!减肥能降低你患糖尿病、心脏病等可能危及生命的疾病的风险。尤其要注意啤酒肚的危害,一项历时 5 年针对西班牙裔和美籍非裔的研究指出,多摄入纤维并定期运动是消灭“游泳圈”(腰腹部的赘肉)最有效的方法。
If you're overweight, slimming down can protect against diabetes, heart disease, and other life-shortening conditions. Belly fat appears to be particularly harmful, so focus on deflating that spare tire. A 5-year study of Hispanics and African-Americans suggests eating more fiber and exercising regularly are effective ways to reduce belly fat.
  11. 生命在于运动,坚持运动(Keep Moving)

图片:webmd.com

  运动对于长寿的好处毋庸置疑,很多研究证明定期运动能降低心脏病、中风、糖尿病、某些癌症以及抑郁症的风险,运动甚至能帮助老人保持头脑敏锐。哪怕每天只爆发 10 分钟,只要每周加起来能有2.5小时的中等强度运动就好。
The evidence is overwhelming – people who exercise live longer on average than those who don't. According to dozens of studies, regular physical activity reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some forms of cancer, and depression. Exercise may even help you stay mentally sharp in your old age. Ten-minute spurts of activity are fine, as long as they add up to about 2.5 hours of moderate exercise per week.
  酒不在多,适度就行

图片来源:webmd.com

  虽然有研究说,适度饮酒的人比完全不喝酒的人更不容易得心脏病,但要牢记过量的酒精会带来啤酒肚、高血压和一大堆其他健康问题。美国心脏协会建议,饮酒者女性每天不宜超过 1 杯,男性1-2杯;但本来不饮酒的人还是别开始为好,保护心脏的方法还有很多。
Heart disease is less common in moderate drinkers than in people who don't drink at all. But keep in mind that too much alcohol pads the belly, boosts blood pressure, and can cause a host of other health problems. The American Heart Association recommends that if you drink alcohol, the limit should be one drink a day for women and one or two for men. But if you don't drink, don't start. There are many other ways of protecting your heart.
  13. 心灵,需要寄托(Get Spiritual)


图片来源:webmd.com

  研究表明参加宗教活动的人比从不参加的人更长寿。在一项历经 12 年针对 65 岁以上的人的研究中发现,一周参加礼拜一次以上的人比从不参加的人身体里有更多的关键免疫系统蛋白,而且死亡率也更低。也许在参加礼拜的人当中形成的紧密的社交关系对健康有帮助。

Research suggests people who attend religious services tend to live longer than people who never attend. In a 12-year study of people over age 65, those who attended services more than once a week had higher levels of a key immune system protein than their peers who attended no services. They were also significantly less likely to die during the study period. The strong social network that develops among people who worship together may contribute to their overall health.

  14. 宽容,退一步海阔天空(Forgive)


图片来源:webmd.com

  你想不到吧,远离“嫉妒羡慕恨”,也会有益健康。慢性愤怒会影响肺功能,增加心脑病、中风等疾病的风险。宽容可以减少忧虑,降低血压,让呼吸更顺畅。年龄越大,由此带来的好处越多。

Letting go of grudges has surprising physical health benefits. Chronic anger is linked to decreased lung function, heart disease, stroke, and other ailments. Forgiveness will reduce anxiety, lower your blood pressure, and help you to breathe more easily. These benefits tend to increase as you get older.

  15. 安全第一,预防为主(Use Safety Gear)

图片:webmd.com

  交通意外是美国排行第 5 的死亡原因,也是1-24岁人群的头号杀手。简单的安全保护措施可以大大增加你长寿的几率。在车祸中,佩戴安全带可以将死亡或者重伤的概率降低 50%。自行车事故中,多数死因是头部受伤,所以一定要戴头盔。
Accidents are the fifth most common cause of death in the U.S., and the top cause of death for people ages 1 to 24. Wearing safety gear is a simple way to boost your odds of a long life. In the event of a motor vehicle crash, seatbelts reduce the risk of death or serious injury by 50%. In bike accidents, most deaths are caused by head injuries, so always wear your helmet.
  16. 呼呼大睡,充足、高质量的睡眠永远是第一位的(Make Sleep a Priority)

图片来源:webmd.com

  充足、高质量的睡眠可以降低肥胖、糖尿病、心脏病以及情绪障碍,加快疾病痊愈的速度。相反,“开夜车”会带来严重的健康风险。每天睡眠不足 5 小时会大大增加未成年死亡的概率,所以要保证充足的睡眠哦。
Getting enough good quality sleep can lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and mood disorders. Sufficient sleep will also help you recover from illness faster. Burning the midnight oil, on the other hand, carries serious health risks. Sleeping less than 5 hours per night boosts the risk of premature death, so make sleep a priority.
  17. 压力,要变成动力(Manage Stress)

图片:webmd.com

  研究认为改善生活方式(包括合理应对压力)不但可以预防心脏病,甚至可以扭转病情。尽管对多数人来讲避免压力并不现实,但可以采取有效的方法应对。试试瑜伽、冥想,或者深呼吸吧,即使每天几分钟也有用。
Dean Ornish, MD, has published research suggesting that lifestyle changes including stress management not only help prevent heart disease, but may actually reverse it. Although avoiding stress is not a viable option for most people, there are effective ways to control it. Try yoga, meditation, or deep breathing. Even a few minutes a day can make a difference.
  18. 生活,要有目标(Maintain a Sense of Purpose)

图片来源:webmd.com

  培养业余爱好,或者做些对自己有意义的事,也有助于长寿。在日本一项持续了 13 年的研究中,目标感较强的人较少死于中风、心脏病等疾病。另一项拉什大学医学中心的研究也指出,有较明确生活目标的人阿兹海默病(即老年痴呆症)发病率更低。
Finding hobbies and activities that have meaning for you may contribute to a long life. Japanese researchers found men with a strong sense of purpose were less likely to die from stroke, heart disease, or other causes over a 13-year period compared to those with a low sense of purpose. Another study at Rush University Medical Center indicates that having a greater sense of purpose is linked to a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
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